Verilog Bitwise Operators

The bitwise operators shall perform bitwise manipulations on the operands; that is, the operator shall
combine a bit in one operand with its corresponding bit in the other operand to calculate 1 bit for the result.

Below are the results for each possible combinations

1 Bitwise binary AND operator:

2. Bitwise binary OR operator:

3. Bitwise binary exclusive or operator

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Verilog Logical Operators

The operators logical and (&&) and logical or (||) are logical connectives. The result of the evaluation of a logical comparison shall be 1 (defined as true), 0 (defined as false), or, if the result is ambiguous, the unknown value (x). The precedence of && is greater than that of ||, and both are lower than relational and equality operators. 

A third logical operator is the unary logical negation operator (!). The negation operator converts a nonzero or true operand into 0 and a zero or false operand into 1. An ambiguous truth value remains as x.

Example 1—If reg alpha holds the integer value 237 and beta holds the value zero, then the following
examples perform as described:
regA = alpha && beta; // regA is set to 0
regB = alpha || beta; // regB is set to 1

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Verilog Equality Operators

All four equality operators shall have the same precedence.

For the logical equality and logical inequality operators (== and !=), if, due to unknown or high-impedance bits in the operands, the relation is ambiguous, then the result shall be a 1-bit unknown value (x). 

For the case equality and case inequality operators (=== and !==), the comparison shall be done just as it is in the procedural case statement (see 9.5). Bits that are x or z shall be included in the comparison and shall match for the result to be considered equal. The result of these operators shall always be a known value, either 1 or 0.

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Verilog Operators and Operands

We will understand the various Verilog operators and operands, their types, and their applications in digital circuit design.
Verilog operators are symbols that represent computations or operations on operands. They are classified into several categories based on their functionality.

Arithmetic operators:
Arithmetic operators perform mathematical operations on operands. Common arithmetic operators in Verilog such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and modulus.

reg [3:0] result;
reg [3:0] a = 3;
reg [3:0] b = 5;
always @* begin
    result = a + b;   // Addition
    result = a - b;   // Subtraction
    result = a * b;   // Multiplication
    result = a / b;   // Division
    result = a % b;   // Modulus
end

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